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What happens when microbiomes 'fight': peculiar findings from data on more than 300 human fecal transplants

Posting time:2023-02-02 09:56:31

What happens when microbiomes 'fight': peculiar findings from data on more than 300 human fecal transplants

Scientists used data from more than 300 human fecal microbiota transplants to gain an ecological understanding of what happens when two gut microbiomes "collide." Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the transfer of fluids and microbes from the lower gut from one person to another. It is sometimes used to treat intestinal inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis and bacterial infections. One form of it was first recorded in China in the 4th century. However, it was not introduced into Western medicine until the 1950s. It has steadily gained prominence over the past 20 years. A team of scientists led by Peer Bork's group at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), and their collaborators in the Netherlands and Australia, have now used this unusual medical procedure to raise the question of when two bowel What happens when the tract microbiome mixes together? The answer may provide clues to strategies to better treat intestinal diseases. It can also provide a richer understanding of the behavior and interactions of microbial species in complex natural ecosystems. Although clinical trials have established that FMT can be effective in treating certain intestinal disorders, its mode of action remains unclear. Some researchers have hypothesized that the donor's gut microbiome has beneficial properties that help restore the recipient's gut to a healthy state. However, this has never been systematically investigated. Sebastian Schmidt said: "The 'super-donor' hypothesis is widely circulated among practitioners: it posits that finding a 'good' donor is critical to the clinical success of FMT, and that a good donor will be effective for many different patients. ." He is the lead author of a new study published Sept. 15 in Nature Medicine. However, using clinical and metagenomics data from more than 300 FMTs, the scientists found that it may be primarily the recipient rather than the donor that determines the microbial mix produced by this procedure. This builds on a 2016 study by Peer Bork's group showing that microbial strains from donors can coexist with microbial strains from recipients with metabolic syndrome. The team developed a machine learning approach to dissect the factors that determine microbial dynamics after FMT, including the presence or absence of individual microbial species. Their findings show that species richness (a measure of how diverse the recipient's gut microbiome was prior to transplantation), and how different the recipient's gut microbiome is from the donor's, are factors that determine which species will be transplanted post-transplant. The main factors of survival and development. From an ecological perspective, their results are interesting, according to Simone Li, another first author of the study and the 2016 study. "Being able to thrive and survive in an entirely new environment is no simple task, especially in a dynamic environment like the human gastrointestinal tract, where things like acidity, oxygen levels and nutrients are constantly changing," she said. As we move toward safer microbial-based therapeutic options, what gets in is only as important as whether they stay long enough to provide the intended benefit." If researchers view FMT surgery as an ecological experiment, the entire microbial ecology By replacing the system to a new location with a pre-existing ecosystem, they could draw important conclusions about what factors help determine how well bacteria "colonize" in the new environment. This could also have important practical applications, as pointed out by the study's corresponding author Peer Bork. "As our understanding of gut ecological processes following FMT improves, we may uncover more precise and targeted links to clinical outcomes -- for example, by replacing only specific strains (such as pathogens) while trying to Reducing 'incidental' effects on other parts of the microbiome." Although this study focused on bacteria and archaea, which together make up more than 90 percent of the gut microbiome, the scientists anticipate that future studies may also incorporate sources from fungi , other eukaryotes and viruses to gain a more comprehensive view of this process. "I hope (and believe) that our findings will aid in the design of more efficient FMT protocols in the future. We present data showing which parameters are worth tuning (and which are not) when you aim to modulate the microbiome of receptors. . This may also inform the design of 'next-generation' personalized probiotic treatments in the long run," Schmidt said.

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